Saturday, 4 August 2007
The museum is a recent addition to the legions of museums in London. It opened to the public at the beginning of July. I was very happy that we happened to be here the month it opened. I don't think many people have discovered it yet, though.
In the museum, you learn interesting information about why things are done the way they are. For instance, did you know that the reason there is an inspection of the guards everyday at 4 pm is because Queen Victoria once surprised the guards and discovered them all drunk? After that, she insisted on a daily inspection. You also learn the differences between the uniforms and how the present day uniform came into being.
You get to see part of the working stables and a set of stalls (shown here) filled with interactive activities. In these stalls, you can take a quiz about the history of the Household Cavalry, a quiz about the horses, and a quiz about the men. In another stall, you can pick up pieces of the uniform to see how much they weigh. Across the room, you can touch the horses' tack. I liked comparing the saddles and bridles that they use on their horses and the ones I use on mine.
In the next room, there are display cases and explanations about the history of the Household Cavalry. It traced their origins in 1661 by Charles II until the current day. Many people do not realize that the Household Cavalry has two distinct roles. One is to guard the Queen on ceremonial occasions. The other is as an armored vehicle unit. This means that the Household Cavalry currently has soldiers fighting in Iraq and Afghanistan.
At the very end of the exhibit, there were two video screens next to one another. Both of them showed the daily life of a member of the Household Cavalry. The twist was that one screen showed a day in Iraq and the other at the Horse Guards Palace. Both of them were showing at the same time and showed the same soldier going through his day. It was very moving.
This is a postcard from the museum's shop showing a little bit of the activities of a normal day. It takes them 10 hours to be ready for daily inspection.
I found it interesting to learn that, today, many of the new recruits don't know how to ride horses when they arrive. They must undergo rigorous training in order to be a member of the unit. This postcard shows a little bit about the training they must undertake.
This picture is from the 11 am changing of the guard.
Friday, 3 August 2007
In the 1820s, the library was re-founded but was only open to members of the library/guilds. In the 1870s, a new library was built. In 1875, it opened to the public, becoming one of the first public libraries in the country. The collection included a good deal of business information which later became the business library also located in the City of London.
During WWII, the library was burnt after an inciderary bomb hit a nearby church. Because of the Blitz risk, most of the valuable items had been moved already. Unfortunately, the place where they were "safely" stored also burnt down, losing those records forever. The library ever since has been trying to replace those books/items. There are still a few items which haven't been able to be replaced and remain on the "Burnt Books" list. After the war, the interior of the library was repaired and it reopened.
The location, however, wasn't entirely convenient for library purposes. It was always being used for social and state functions which meant the library was continuously being closed and the reading room arranged and rearranged. In 1974, a new library was built right next to the old library. Today, you might never know that the old library is there unless you know the area well or happen to go around the corner and see it.
The new library has an extensive collection on books about London. In fact, in the 1930s, a Guildhall librarian devised a separate classification system for the London books. Dewey is used for the non-London works but would not have been useful for the London collection. Their collection of British and English local history (parish records, etc), family history and Parliamentary matter is quite impressive.
Here is a picture to break up all of the words in this post. It comes from a postcard which has information about the Guildhall Library Prints and Maps section.
It was interesting to learn that 95 livery companies (i.e. guilds) gave their libraries to the Guildhall and still deposit materials in it today. I guess I never thought that guilds are still around.
One of the most internationally important collection that the library holds is the London Stock Exchange records. The stock exchange gave the Guildhall Library all of their historical records and company annual reports from 1880 to 1964. This collection alone comprises 2.5 miles (!) of shelf space. What a resource for people looking for information about companies!
Another very important collection is the Lloyds Marine collection. Lloyds is an insurance company which once specialized in maritime risk. This collection includes 350,000 voyage record cards which recorded information about every single ship that hit the seas.
The current library has 10 staff members in the printed books section, 4 in the print room, 10 in the manuscript area, 14 service assistants, and volunteers who assist during special projects such as indexing the Lloyds records. The library receives anywhere from 10-15 letters or emails asking questions each day. The first 20 minutes research (done by a librarian) is free but for a more in-depth search, it costs £50 per hour. I found it interesting that the Guildhall Library strives to get requested books to their readers within 20 minutes (if the book is on site). Readers are allowed to photocopy the more modern documents but most are beginning to bring digital cameras to get color copies, instead.
I also found it interesting that the library designed their own digital image database called COLLAGE. Mr. Harper said it was one of the first digitization projects. If a user wishes, he or she can print out a small copy of whatever document or item that they want. If they want a clearer or larger copy, the library will send them one for a small fee.
Thursday, 2 August 2007
Wednesday, 1 August 2007
Today, we visited the Caird Library located in the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich. Greenwich is a lovely suburb of London. It used to be a separate town but, like all large cities, London has spread out over time. Christopher Wren continued his campaign of no sleeping in Greenwich. I swear, he built everything in London! Greenwich has a strong connection to the sea, the Royal Navy, and English shipping.
The Caird Library was named after Sir James Caird, an enthusiast of maritime history. The library was officially opened in 1937 by King George VI. The building's original function was that of a school. The Royal Hospital School was a school for the orphans of sailors.
The library is funded by the Department of Culture, Media and Sport. Like the National Art Library, some are wondering what the Olympics in 2012 will do to their funding.
The first thing we encountered at the library was located outside of its doors. The area called the E-Library is located outside of the library itself. The reason for this is that a) it is a space for patrons to look through the library's catalog without disturbing other users, b) the enquiry and reader registration is located there so others wouldn't be disturbed, and c) users under the age of 16 aren't allowed to go into the library but the library wanted to provide a space for them. There is a little seating area next to a low bookcase full of picture books and other miscellaneous books. In this seating area, the library does storytimes occasionally for their young visitors.
In the reading room of the library, 2,500 reference books are located there. These are the only books that the readers are allowed to take off the shelves themselves. The overall collection of the library extends to 100,000 volumes (some 8,000 of which are rare books), 4.5 miles of shelving for manuscripts (letters, shipping journals, Royal Naval logs, etc.), and numerous other items. Like most libraries, the Caird Library is dealing with storage space issues. This problem is especially true in the reading room. Many new items are coming in each year but the library is running out of places to put them. There is a much needed new archive in the works.
After our tour of the library, we were shown some fabulous manuscripts and rare printed books. Can I just say that it never ceases to amaze me the kind of things that libraries/museums have hiding in their collections? Here is the group looking at some of the materials.
Here are some of the highlights of the materials that we were shown: a spy book listing all of the Spanish ships from 1582, a 17th century waggoner book (atlas) once owned by a pirate, a naval log from the ship which captured and killed Blackbeard, a slave ship log which was written by the author of Amazing Grace, letters with Samuel Pepys signature, a letter from Admiral Lord Nelson to his wife (saying it was all over) and a love letter to his mistress, a huge collection of Titanic materials including photos taken while pulling survivors out of the water and of it famous (infamous?) iceberg, a printed Ptolemy Atlas from 1562, a medicine book from the HMS Bounty bound in some of the sail cloth, a book printed in Antarctica, etc. etc. Talk about some real treasures! I didn't even know pictures existed of the picking up of Titanic survivors much less the iceberg.
After the tour was over, a few of us went over to the Royal Observatory and the Prime Meridian. We happened to be there to watch the red ball which was used to mark time fall at 1 pm. Talk about good timing! (Timing, ha!)
After visiting the Observatory, we went into the Painted Hall. Pictures will never do that place justice. I can't imagine taking 19 years to finish it. Talk about long-term commitment to your job.
All and all, a very good trip.
Tuesday, 31 July 2007
The centre room of the library is where the enquiry desk (reference desk), the counter where books are picked up, dropped off and readers are registered, computers with the library's catalog, and a ready reference collection are all located.
The marshalling area is where all of the requests come through and are organized. The staff have to use a findings list in order to find where the items are located. They look up the press mark on the book and check the findings list because most of the books are stored by size and not by subject. The pressmarks on the spines of new books relate to the size of the volumes. For instance, a 603 book is 20-30 cm in height. Once the request is filled, the books are put in a pidgeonhole which has numbers corresponding to the desk at which the reader is sitting. This saves cluttering up a reading desk if the reader does not look at the book quickly. Also, some readers request items which they might never pick up.
Over 8,000 periodical titles are housed in the periodicals stacks. Approximately, 2,500 of these, however, are actually getting current issues still published. The National Art Library differs from the British Library because they collect all sorts of periodicals, not just the British ones. This means that many different languages are located here. The periodicals are all rebound into hardbacks. One reason for this is to preserve the issues and collect them in one place. Another reason is because it would be harder for someone to slip an entire hardback book into their purse or bag. I was kind of amazed to learn that there is no sort of security system in place. None of the items are tagged. True, there is a record of who requested what item but that doesn't seem like it would deter many people.
Both of the women giving our tour stressed that the library was tight for space. This fact was obvious when we were in the stacks. I would hate to have to do any shifting in there. A problem with this lack of space is that the new books coming through cataloging are beginning to back-up. The shelving in the staff area was filled with books which have recently come in but can't go anywhere because there is no space for them. Luckily, readers can still request these books. I get the feeling that the situation is frustrating for everyone working there.
Next, my group was able to view some book art and other impressive books. Here are some of the class looking at the book art.
My favourite? Definitely Drawings in a Nutshell. They are little drawings of nuts in a little book which is in a nutshell. Love it.
But I liked the Empty Bookcases book, too.
And this travel journal/scrapbook/autograph book was amazing. The artist/creator/author was a wonderful artist.
Wednesday, 25 July 2007
Today, we went to the Writers' Museum in Edinburgh. It primarily concentrates on the lives of Robert Louis Stevenson, Robert Burns and Sir Walter Scott, all Scottish authors. A temporary exhibit space features different authors, too. While we were there, it focused on Ian Rankin, author of the Detective Rebus series based in Edinburgh.
The house was built in 1622. In 1907, it was donated to the city to use as a museum. Inside the building, we were able to see some items from the different authors' lives including a printing press at the top of the building (unfortunately the audio explanation about it was broken), a set of walking sticks, Burns' writing desk, a dining table where Scott wrote some of his novels, pictures of Stevenson throughout his life, and much more.
I found the Rankin and Rebus exhibit interesting. I had heard of this series before but had never read it. After going to this exhibit, however, my interest was caught and I think I will. The first book Rebus appeared in was called Knots and Crosses. Originally, the author planned to kill that character off but his editor convinced him not to. While researching for Knots and Crosses, Rankin himself was briefly considered a suspect in a real life case in Edinburgh that was similar to his plot.
When I was getting ready to leave the museum, I happened to see this sign on the stairway. "Warning: During reconstruction it was found that this stair had been built with steps of varying heights. This was sometimes done in old houses in order that persons unfamiliar with the dwelling might betray their presence by stumbling. The feature has been retained."
Monday, 23 July 2007
The National Archives owns three buildings: the General Register House, the West Register House and the Thomas Thomson House. The General Register House was opened in the late 1780s and was built specifically to house the records of Scotland. In 1970, West Register House was acquired for more storage space. By the 1980s, still more space was needed and the Thomas Thomson House was built. It opened in 1995 for record storage and is almost full today.
The National Archives is open to the public and, because it is funded by the government, does not charge to use the records. The Archives houses records from the 12th century up to the present. The materials vary widely from vellum documents to digital copies and everything in-between. It houses state and parliamentary papers, valuation rolls, church records, wills, private records, taxation records, family and estate records, and much more.
The archivist who talked to us gave us a number of helpful websites about the archives and the services it provides: the NAS site, the SAFS site, the SCAN site, Scottish Wills site, and a self-help guide to reading documents.
The Archives is working on a number of digitization projects in order to preserve the heavily used delicate records they own. For example, they are digitizing Church of Scotland records which are very useful for family history researchers. They currently are working on the Registers Archive Conversion Project which is digitizing land registers, another heavily used collection. Another project they are working on it the Image Library Project in conjunction with the National Library of Scotland.
The final part of the lecture was showing us actual documents. One letter was from Mary, Queen of Scots, to her mother. Another was a church record scroll which contained the first written record they (the Archive, at least) have from 1494. Someone was being paid with "aqua vitae" or water of life which is what we know of as whiskey. It was also interesting to see a poem about the British Railway system which went through the alphabet. Some of the lines are still true today!
The library has a very varied collection, everything including 3 million maps, musical recordings, film archives, government documents, manuscripts, and books. Because the library is a national depository, they get a copy of every book published. Every week 8,000 works are added to the collection. Like the British Library, the National Library of Scotland is dedicated to collecting, preserving and providing access to materials.
This library had the exhibit that I liked the most of all the places we visited. The John Murray Archive is a recent addition to the library. John Murray opened a publishing firm in 1768. Seven generations later, his decedents sold the publishing firm's collection of materials to the National Library for £31.2 million. Some of these materials included letters to and from Murray and his authors, others were handwritten manuscripts, and publishing equipment.
According to the archive's brochure, "John Murray published many of the most important thinkers and writers of the past two centuries: people whose words helped shape the modern world." Some of these important thinkers and writers were Charles Darwin, Jane Austen, and Lord Byron.
The library and archive have begun a large digitizing project with a goal of digitizing 15,000 items. They want to make sure they are able to minimize the damage to fragile items and make the archive's resources available to a larger number of people. Their goal is to be finished with cataloging the entire archive within 3 years. Because the collection was largely uncataloged when it arrived at the library, they are still making interesting discoveries. They are 1 year into this project.
The archive did not want to lock themselves into the traditional idea of an archive. They wanted to make an interesting and interactive exhibit for visitors to enjoy. In many archives, the displays are "text-heavy" which can become dull after a while. Items on display need to be put into context for visitors and sometimes the documents on display need to be translated or typed out so that it is legible. All of this contributes to more text for visitors to read and a display which might not engage their interest.
The design of this archive exhibit took 3 years to complete and was created by the library, researchers (like John Murray VII), and designers. They made sure to visit other libraries and museums to see how others were making their displays. They determined that there are 4 characteristics of a good display for them. 1) Materials should be displayed in a theatrical way. 2) object rich displays with minimal labels were more interactive. 3) Use of light and shadow could be very dramatic. 4) They wanted to teach people more about the publishing trade. The purpose of the archive was to show the documents/manuscripts, help visitors understand the people behind them, give context and provide audio transcription/narration.
I think they did a great job making an interesting exhibit. The exhibit was really kind of dark with these glass cases filled with clothing, manuscripts/letters, and other objects which represented the person who the case is about. For instance, one woman who wrote a cookery book had a dress and cap, letters to Murray, and a mixing bowl and spoon in her case. Inside these cases were no labels and no writing other than that on the manuscripts. Instead, there was a touchscreen in front of the case where you could select which item you wanted to know more about and the information would come up on the screen. Also, the item you were looking at would be highlighted in the case. I loved how creative it all was. Below is a sketch I made to explain the cases a little bit more.
In addition to the cases, they also had little tidbits of information about the world of publishing. At the end of it exhibit, there was a "table of publishing" (I don't know if this is actually what they called it). You could "publish" your own book but tapping on the table like a giant touch screen. It was so much fun to play with and you got some pretty funny titles.
As I said before, this was probably my favourite exhibit. It grabbed your attention and kept you involved.
Friday, 20 July 2007
We stopped by the Jane Austen Centre at 40 Gay Street. The Centre focuses on the years that Austen spent living in Bath which gave her the most fodder for her later novels. The building where the Centre is located is not actually one of the places Austen lived in while in Bath. It is, however, very similar to the house at 25 Gay Street. Both of the houses were built between 1735 and 1760 by the same architects, John Wood the Elder and John Wood the Younger.
Upon entering the Centre, you are taken upstairs for a brief lecture about Austen's history, her family, and her time in Bath. The tour guide then led us down to the permanent exhibition area. The permanent exhibit is devoted to the time that Austen lived in Bath, 1801 to 1806. I liked that the area and the time of the books were really put into context. For example, there was an explanation about salaries and how much a man would have to be worth in order to have various things like multiple servants or a carriage.
One interesting display was the Mystery Dress. This dress was found in pieces in a bag by an antiques dealer. They were able to painstakingly reconstruct the dress and it looks so beautiful! For more information, click on the picture of the sign to see a bigger picture.
Inside the permanent exhibit, there was a temporary exhibit about the costumes used for a ITV presentation of Persuasion. After seeing all of the costumes, I really wanted to see the show!
The site of the Roman Baths had been sacred even before the Romans arrived in Britain. The hot springs found in Bath are the only ones in England and the rest of the United Kingdom. For this reason, ancient peoples used to come there and offer sacrifices and honor the gods of the spring. When the Romans arrived, they dedicated the baths to the goddess, Minerva. The Roman Baths Museum does a good job of informing visitors about the area's history and is one of the most well-preserved ancient Roman spas in the world.
The columns and statues that a visitor sees today around the Great Bath are not actually an original part of the ancient spa. These are Victorian additions. The water in the Great Bath is green because of the algae reaction to the sunlight. In Roman times, the Great Bath would have been covered and the water would have been a normal colour.
My favourite display at the museum was the "Objects from the spring" area. Some are things you might expect like coins. Over 12,00 ancient coins have been found there. The objects that really interested me were the messages offered to Minerva. Many of these were curses asking the goddess to punish those who had harmed the writer or his or her families. Many more curses than prayers have been found in the spring.
I was disappointed that the display about the signet rings that I had seen in 2003 had been replaced by another display. In the water, many signet rings slipped off fingers or the jewels' fastenings were loosened by the hot water and dropped into the water. Some of the carvings on those were just amazing. My favourite was a picture of a man holding a mare and her foal.
Here is a picture of a hippocamp mosaic.
And here we are sitting on the edge of the Great Bath.
Thursday, 19 July 2007
The Old Library was originally intended to be only the school of divinity, not a library. Because the construction of the divinity school took 65 years to complete, they built on another story to the building and added the library in 1488. The king's brother at the time, Duke Humfrey, donated his collection of Renaissance influenced books and so it was called Duke Humfrey's Library (creative, huh?). There was no real organization with the first library because there was no librarian appointed and no plan for book acquisition.
Later, during the English Reformation (where Henry VIII changed the state religion from Catholic to Protestant) most of the books and manuscripts were destroyed because they were Catholic texts. Just think of the works that are no longer around because of that!
The next area the guide took us is called Convocation Hall. This room was were the convocation of the university met. These were the ruling men of the university including the chancellor (head) of the university and all of the heads of the various colleges. Parliament was even held in that room. Once during the plague and Great Fire of London because no one wanted to be in London while everyone was dying of plague. The other time was during the reign of Charles I and the English Civil War.
The next room of the Old Library was the Chancellor's Court which was a law court presided over by the chancellor of the university. The chancellor also had power over the people of the town as well as the university. The townspeople did not like that at all and there was a lot of 'town and gown' animosity.
The Bodleian library got its name from Thomas Bodley who used his own money to repair and expand the library. It opened in 1602 with ~2,000 texts. That was a huge number when you consider there were only about 100 students at the time. The Old Library was designed as a combination chained library (i.e. the books were chained to the desks) and a gallery library. Our tour guide, Matthew, said that the rest of Europe had already implemented gallery libraries but England had not. The chained book that he showed us is a reproduction so that tour groups can be showed a chain book. This does not mean, however, that the chained books are not used. Readers can request to see these books though they are under supervision by the library staff which they are using them.
One fact that I found fascinating was that there have been only 24 head librarians at the Bodleian library since 1602. Talk about long lived!
The next building we visited was the Radcliffe Camera, a round building next to the Old Library. Matthew said that this building is probably the most photographed building in Oxford. Bet many of the people taking those pictures don't know that it is a library. It wasn't originally intended to be a library, however. Curved walls must be a nightmare for the library staff and book storage. In 1860, the building became a part of the Library.
I liked seeing the conveyor belt that took the books from one building to another. Like all libraries and libraries housed in separate buildings, I am always amazed that things get from one place to another so smoothly.
Tuesday, 17 July 2007
This exhibition focused on 7 aspects of women's lives: pleasure (leisure time), having a voice, beauty, equality of work, safety and security, freedom and independence, and home life. Each of these aspects were in separate sections of the exhibit space and had items on display such as magazines, photos, buttons and a fact area which listed some statistical information. I found the statistical information very interesting and informative.
The pleasure section included a breakdown on how women in the UK today spend their free time.
TV & videos:
2 hours, 9 minutes or 44% of free time
1 hour or 21% of free time
25 minutes or 9% of free time <--they obviously didn't poll librarians!
Sports and exercise:
11 minutes or 4% of free time
23 minutes or 8% of free time
Hobbies and games:
15 minutes or 5% of free time
Volunteer work and help:
14 minutes or 5% of free time
Entertainment and culture:
6 minutes or 2% of free time
Other or unspecified:
10 minutes or 3% of free time
For each of the other sections, I will write the heading and put some of the interesting information as bullet points under it.
Having a voice
- Since 1918, only 253 women have been elected as MPs
- 28% of local councillors are women
- 25% of British MEPs are women
- In 2004, the top cosmetic surgery procedures for women in Britain were breast augmentation, breast reduction, eyelid surgery and face/neck lift.
- Around 1 in 100 young women has bulimia nervosa.
- 55% of men rate looks as the most attractive thing in a woman and only 1% said intelligence
- 22% of young women admit to staying at home because they think they don't look good.
Equality of work
- Women now make up 46% of the labour force in Britain and 70% of women are in employment.
- Since 1975, when the Equality Pay Act came into effect, the full-time pay gap has closed considerably, from 29.5% to 19.8% in 1997 and from 21.2% in 1998 to 18.4% in 2004.
Safety and Security
- The number of rapes reported in England and Wales is rising, but only 5.6% of 11,766 reports in 2002 led to a rapist being convicted.
- There were approximately 13 million incidents of domestic violence against women in 2000.
Freedom and Independence
- Use of the oral contraceptive pill was highest, at 28% in the mid 1970s and early 80s. Usage then fell and has never since reached the same level of use. In 1998, 24% of women aged 16-49 used oral contraceptives.
- In 2000-1, women spent over 2 hours a day doing housework, cooking, washing up, cleaning and ironing, one hour more than men.
- The average number of children per household has declined to 1.8 in 2001 from 2 in 1971.
I think my favourite thing about this exhibit was the wall where visitors could tack up their thoughts and responses to each of the sections. It was a good way to make the exhibit interactive and I liked seeing what other people thought about it.
Monday, 16 July 2007
Our speaker, John Cotton, is the curator of the prehistory section of the museum. His talk was a very interesting combination of the history of the museum and the design of the prehistory exhibit. The museum, built in 1976, is the result of a combination of the Guild Hall Museum, London Archaeology Museum and Archives and the London Museum (which had previously been housed in Kensington Palace). The Museum of London employs 150 people in the main museum and 150 people at an archaeology archives building.
The museum draws three main types of visitors: people who want to know more about the Victorians, people who want to know more about the Tudors and the Stuarts, and the people who want to know about Roman London. (I fall firmly in the last group.) Mr. Cotton's job is to draw them into his area and educate the visitors about a time period in which they didn't know they would be interested. In order to do this, he and his team took great care in the creation of their exhibit, London before London.
They wanted visitors to take home 4 messages about the exhibit. One, that the climate has fluctuated over the course of history. Two, that the River Thames was (and still is) very important to the city of London. It was sacred to the people who originally settled there. They offered sacrifices to the river such as spears, swords, coins, and even human sacrifices. Even today, sacred items such as small statutes of Hindi gods are being found in the river. Individual Londoners define themselves as South or North Londoners depending on which side of the river they live. Taxi drivers primarily operate on one side or the other because that is the territory that they know well. The third message is that people were individuals. Many times, we tend to think of prehistory peoples rather than individuals. The museum wants to put a face to the individual and make visitors relate to them. The fourth message is that the legacy of the prehistory people did not stop when the Romans arrived.
The time and amount of work that it took to put together the design of the exhibit will definitely make me think about how museums decide to display their items from now on. They carefully decided how much text was too much because they didn't want visitors to read the captions but never look at the items. The designers also wanted people to really understand how important the Thames is so they mimicked the idea of water by an entire wall lit with blue light.
I will definitely have to keep my eye out for other ways that different exhibits use light and color to draw attention to what they are trying to impart to the visitor.
Down the hall from the prehistory exhibit, for instance, was the Great Fire of London display. They used red, a color that many of us associate with flames, all over the walls and floors. You couldn't mistake the area you were in!
As much as I liked the prehistory display, my favourite part was the Roman section. I am just a Roman History junkie. They did a nice job of recreating scenes from everyday life.